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CLVM Reference Manual

The clvm is a small, tightly defined VM that defines the semantics of CLVM programs run during Chia blockchain validation. It serves as a target language for higher level languages, especially ChiaLisp.


  • CLVM Assembly - The textual representation of a CLVM program.
  • CLVM Bytecode - The serialized form of a CLVM program.
  • ChiaLisp - A higher-level language, built on top of CLVM.
  • CLVM Object - The underlying data type in the CLVM. An atom or a cons pair.
  • Atom - The datatype for values in the CLVM. Atoms are immutable byte arrays. Atoms are untyped and are used to encode all strings, integers, and keys. The only things in the CLVM which are not atoms are cons pairs. Atom properties are length, and the bytes in the atom.
  • cons pair - An immutable ordered pair of references to other CLVM objects. One of two data types in the CLVM. The syntax for a cons pair is a dotted pair. Also called cons cell or cons box.
  • slot - One of the cells in a cons box. right or left. Accessed with f (first) or r (rest).
  • nil - nil is the special value represented by the zero length byte array. This value represents zero, the empty string, false, and the empty list. Nil is represented in CLVM assembly as (), 0, or ''.
  • Value - We use value to mean an abstract value like 1 (an integer), 0xCAFE (a byte string), "hello" (a string) or (sha256 (q . "hello")) (a program). Values are represented by CLVM Objects.
  • List - CLVM lists follow the lisp convention of being a cons pair containing the first list element in the left slot and the rest of the list in the right slot.
  • Proper List - A "proper" list is a chain of cons boxes, each containing a value in the left slot. Each right slot contains either another cons box, or nil, if it is the last pair.
  • Function - A function in the CLVM is either a built-in opcode or a user-defined program.
  • Operator - An opcode/string specifying a built-in function to use.
  • Program - A CLVM object which can be executed.
  • Opcodes - An atom corresponding to a reserved keyword. When a list is evaluated with a pre-defined opcode in the first position, the code for that opcode is run.
  • Keyword - A reserved word in the CLVM assembly language syntax. The strings used for function lookup by the CLVM.
  • Tree - A binary tree can be formed from cons pairs and atoms by allowing the right and left cells of a cons pair to hold either an atom, or a cons pair. Atoms are the leaves of the tree.
  • Function Parameter - When a list is evaluated, the first argument is the function, and the other items are parameters. In the program (+ (q . 1) (q . 2)), the quoted atoms 1 and 2 are parameters to the operator +
  • Treearg - These are program arguments passed in from outside the program. They are referenced by integers that describe a path in the argument tree.
  • Argument - Outside the context of the CLVM, the term "argument" can mean "program argument" (the "argv" of the C language, for example), or "function argument", among other things. Because of this potential confusion, we avoid using the term "argument" in this document. The context is especially important considering the way in which CLVM programs look up their program arguments.

A CLVM program must have an unambiguous definition and meaning, so that Chia block validation and consensus is deterministic. Programs are treated as Merkle trees, uniquely identified by the hash at their root. The program hash can be used to verify that two programs are identical.

Readable assembly format

The in-memory objects the CLVM operates on are atoms and cons pairs, but for programming convenience there is a human readable string format for input and output. This format is what is passed to the brun tool. This text representation of CLVM programs and data is not used anywhere in blockchain validation and has no impact on consensus. There are multiple ways of encoding the same CLVM object in the human readable serialization format, so going backwards to pretty print a CLVM object in this format requires guessing as to the best representation.

Atoms in the human readable representation can be represented as directly quoted strings. They can also be expressed as decimal integers (100), or hex literals (0x64).

Cons pairs can be represented using dot as an infix operator like so: (3 . 4), which corresponds to a cons pair containing 3 and 4. A more common representation of data is lists, which are written as parentheses surrounding a space-delimited list of values.

Proper lists are built from linked cons pairs, and assume a nil terminator. For example (3 4 5) represents the same thing as (3 . (4 . (5 . nil))).

Note that 0, '', and () all are parsed to the same value, but 0x0 is not.

Program Evaluation

The syntax of CLVM assembly is similar to Lisp. It is a parenthesized prefix notation that puts the operator before the arguments when reading left to right.

The semantics of the language implemented by the CLVM is similar to Lisp. A program is represented as a binary tree. The root of the tree is the least nested object in the program tree, with inner function calls embedded recursively inside of it. In the following example, the outer parentheses represent the cons box that is the root of the tree (+ (q . 1) (q . 2)).

Whenever a program is called it always has a context, or environment, which is a CLVM object. This object holds all the arguments passed into the program. This is the second command line argument to run and brun. The default environment is nil.

If the program is an atom then an argument lookup is performed, and the argument is returned. Please see treeargs, below.

If the the root of the program is a cons pair then all of the parameters (contained in the right slot of the cons box) are evaluated, then a function call is made and the result of that function call is returned. The object on the left determines the function to call and the object on the right determines what arguments it is passed.

If the object in the leftmost position of a list being executed is an operator in a list, the operator is called without first evaluating the parameters.

If the CLVM is running in "strict mode", an unknown opcode will abort the program. This is the mode CLVM is run in during mempool checking and block validation. During developer testing, the CLVM may be run in "non-strict" mode, which allows for unknown opcodes to be used and treated as no-ops.

The quote opcode is special. When it is recognized by the interpreter, it causes whatever is on the right to be returned unevaluated. All other functions are passed the results of evaluating what's on the right first.

A compiled CLVM program can be thought of as a binary tree.

Here is an example of a function invocation (or "function call"). (+ (q . 1) (q . 2)). The function is the opcode +, a function built-in to the clvm runtime.

(+ (q . 1) (q . 2))

      [ ]     /   \    +     [ ]         /   \      [q, 1]  [ ]             /   \         [q, 2]  nil

After First Reduction

(+ 1 2)

      [ ]     /   \    +     [ ]         /   \        1     [ ]             /   \            2    nil

After Second Reduction, and + function application


Program trees are evaluated by first evaluating the leaf nodes, then their parents, recursively. Arguments to functions are always evaluated before the function is called. CLVM objects need not be evaluated in a specific order, but all child nodes must be evaluated before their parent.

If the item is a quoted value, the value is returned.

If the item is an atom, the atom is looked up as a Treearg.

If the item to be evaluated is a list, all of the parameters are evaluated and then the evaluated parameters are passed to the function

All arguments of a function are evaluated before being passed to that function.


The two types of CLVM Object are cons pair and atom. They can be distinguished by the listp opcode. Atoms in the CLVM language do not carry other type information. However, similarly to the machine code instructions for a CPU, functions interpret atoms in specific predictable ways. Thus, each function imposes a type for each of its arguments.

The value of an atom - its length, and the values of its bytes - are always well defined and unambiguous. Because atoms have no type information, the meaning of an atom is determined when a function is applied to it. In the following example, an atom that was read in as a string is treated as an integer.

brun '(+ (q . "helo") (q . 1))' => "help"

And in this example, an atom that was read in as an integer is appended to a string.

brun '(concat (q . "hello") (q . 49))' => "hello1"

Atoms as Byte Arrays#

The atom is treated as an array of bytes, with a length. No specific semantics are assumed, except as specified in the instruction.

Unsigned Integer#

An unsigned integer of arbitrary length. If more bits are required to perform an operation with atoms of different length, the atom is virtually extended with zero bytes to the left.

Signed Integer#

The byte array behaves as a two's complement signed integer. The most significant bit denotes a negative number. The underlying representation matters, because the individual bytes are viewable through other operations.

This type has the potential for multiple representations to be treated as the same value. For example, 0xFF and 0xFFFF both encode -1. Integer arithmetic operations that treat returned atoms as signed integers will return the minimal representation for negative numbers, eg. 0xFF for -1

These integers are byte-aligned. For example, 0xFFF is interpreted as the two bytes 0x0F,0xFF, with value 4095.

This can also cause unexpected representations of numbers when they are expected to be interpreted as strings..

If a positive integer's first byte is >= 0x80 (the most significant bit is 1) then it will be prepended with a 0x00 when the operator output type is a signed integer. Without that prepended byte, a positive value would appear negative in the case that the high bit is set. You are likely to encounter this when using the output of an int operation as the input of a string operation.

BLS Point#

This type represents a point on an elliptic curve over finite field described here.

These values are opaque values, 48 bytes in length. The outputs of pubkey_for_exp are BLS points. The inputs and outputs of point_add are BLS points.

Treeargs : Program Arguments, and Argument Lookup#

For a program running on a deterministic machine to have different behaviours, it must be able to have different starting states. The starting state for a CLVM program is the program argument list - the treearg.

When an unquoted integer is evaluated, it is replaced with the corresponding value/CLVM Object from the program Treearg. If the argument is not found, nil is returned.

As an improvement over walking the argument tree via calls to first and rest, arguments are referenced from the argument list by their argument number. This number is derived by translating a path of left and right cons slots followed from the root of the argument tree to that CLVM Object, into a series of ones and zeros. The number representing the path is read starting at the least significant bit. The number of the root of the argument tree is 1. When the path is complete, a final 1 is appended to the msb of the number.

Illustration of argument numbering#

We treat an s-expression as a binary tree, where leaf nodes are atoms, and cons pairs are nodes with two children. We then number the paths as follows:

              1             / \            /   \           /     \          /       \         /         \        /           \       2             3      / \           / \     /   \         /   \    4      6      5     7   / \    / \    / \   / \  8   12 10  14 9  13 11  15

This quirky numbering makes the implementation simple.

Numbering starts at the root of the tree. The path index is set to 1, which represents the entire argument tree. Bits are appended to the right of the path index as we descend, 0 for left, and 1 for right.

See the implementation here


In most programming languages, evaluating a literal returns the value itself. In CLVM, the meaning of an atom at evaluation time (at any position of the list except the first), is a reference to a value in the argument tree. xxx

Therefore, when you intend to write:

(+ 1 2) => 3

You must instead write: (+ (q . 1) (q . 2)) => 3

nil is self-quoting.

Compilation: Atom Syntax#

Although there is only one underlying representation of an atom, different syntaxes are recognized during compile time, and those atom syntaxes are interpreted differently during the translation from program text to CLVM Objects.

Nil, decimal zero and the empty string all evaluate to the same atom.

(q . ()) => ()

(q . 0) => ()

(q . "") => ()

which is not the same as a single zero byte.

(q . 0x0) => 0x00

Equivalence of Strings, symbols, hex strings, and numbers#

"A" is the same atom as A

(q . "A") => 65(q . A) => 65(q . 65) => 65(q . 0x41) => 65

However, the same is not true for Built-ins. "q" is not the same as q

(q . q) => 1(q . "q") => 113

Operators are atoms too..#

When you write a program, the first argument in the list is interpreted as an operator. However, this operator is also stored as an unsigned int. This can lead to ambiguity and confusing outputs:

(r (q . (1 2 3))) => (a 3)

Since 2 is at the beginning of the list, brun assumes it is the operator and looks up its corresponding representation, which in this case is a. It is the correct output of the program, it is just displayed in an unexpected way.


While running a clvm program, checks are made to ensure the CLVM does not enter an undefined state. When a program violates one of these runtime checks, it is said to have caused an error.

  • First element in an evaluated list is not a valid function. Example: ("hello" (q . 1)) => FAIL: unimplemented operator "hello"
  • Wrong number of arguments. Example: (lognot (q . 1) (q . 2)) => FAIL: lognot requires 1 arg
  • Program evaluation exceeds max cost see Costs
  • Too many allocations have been performed
  • Argument checking e.g. negative index run '(substr "abc" -1 -)' FAIL: invalid indices for substr ("abc" -1 17)

An error will cause the program to abort.

Operator Summary

The built-in opcodes#

Opcodes are functions built in to the CLVM. They are available to any running program.

List Operators#

c cons (c A B) takes exactly two operands and returns a cons pair with the two objects in it (A in the left, B in the right)

Example: '(c (q . "A") (q . ()))' => (65)

f first (f X) takes exactly one operand which must be a cons pair, and returns the left half

r rest (r X) takes exactly one operand which must be a cons pair, and returns the right half

l listp (l X) takes exactly one operand and returns () if it is an atom or 1 if it is a cons pair. In contrast to most other lisps, nil is not a list in CLVM.

Control Flow#

a apply (a P A) run the program P with the arguments A. Note that this executes P in a new environment. Using integers to reference values in the solution will reference values in A.

i if (i A B C) takes exactly three operands A, B, C. If A is (), return C. Otherwise, return B. Both B and C are evaluated before if is evaluated.

x raise exception (x X Y ...) takes an arbitrary number of arguments (even zero). Immediately fail, with the argument list passed up into the (python) exception. No other CLVM instructions are run after this instruction is evaluated.

= equal (= A B) returns 1 if A and B are both atoms and both equal. Otherwise (). Do not use this to test if two programs are identical. That is determined by their tree hash. Nil tests equal to zero, but nil is not equal to a single zero byte.

> greater than (> A B) returns 1 if A and B are both atoms and A is greater than B, interpreting both as two's complement signed integers. Otherwise (). (> A B) means A > B in infix syntax.

>s greater than bytes (>s A B) returns 1 if A and B are both atoms and A is greater than B, interpreting both as an array of unsigned bytes. Otherwise (). Compare to strcmp. (>s "a" "b") => ()

not (not A) returns 1 if A evaluates to (). Otherwise, returns ().

all (all A B ...) takes an arbitrary number of arguments (even zero). Returns () if any of the arguments evaluate to (). Otherwise, returns 1.

any (any A B ...) takes an arbitrary number of arguments (even zero). Returns 1 if any of the arguments evaluate to something other than (). Otherwise, returns ().


q quote The form (q . X) when evaluated returns X, which is not evaluated. Example: (q . "A") => 65

Integer Operators#

The arithmetic operators +, -, *, / and divmod treat their arguments as signed integers.

+ (+ a0 a1 ...) takes any number of integer operands and sums them. If given no arguments, zero is returned.

- (- a0 a1 ...) takes one or more integer operands and adds a0 to the negative of the rest. Giving zero arguments returns 0.

* (* a0 a1 ...) takes any number of integer operands and returns the product.

/ (/ A B) divides two integers and returns the floored quotient


(/ 1  2) => ()(/ 2  2) => 1(/ 4  2) => 2

Division of negative numbers#

The treatment of negative dividend and divisors is as follows:

(/ -1 1) => -1(/ 1 -1) => -1(/ -1 -1) =>  1

Flooring of negative nubmers#

Note that a division with a remainder always rounds towards negative infinity, not toward zero.

(/ -3 2) => -2(/ 3 2) => 1

This means that -a / b is not always equal to -(a / b)

divmod (divmod A B) takes two integers and returns a cons-box containing the floored quotient and the remainder.

(divmod 10 3)   => (3 . 1)

Bit Operations#

logand, logior and logxor operate on any number of arguments nil as an argument to these functions is treated as a zero. Fail if either A or B is not an atom. The shorter atom is sign-extended to equal length as the longer atom.

The logand, logior and logxor accept 0 or more parameters. There is an implicit identity argument, which is the value all parameters will apply to. The identity will just be returned in case 0 arguments are given.

logand (logand A B ...) bitwise AND of one or more atoms. Identiy is -1.

(logand -128 0x7fffff)   => 0x7fff80

The first argument is 0x80 (since it's Two's complement). It is negative, it will be sign-extended with ones. Once sign-extended, the computation becomes 0xffff80 AND 0x7fffff = 0x7fff80.

logior (logior A B ...) bitwise logical OR of one or more atoms. Identity is 0.

(logior -128 0x7fffff)   => -1

Sign extending the first argument becomes 0xffff80, ORing that with 0x7fffff becomes 0xffffff which is -1 in Two's complement. Note that the resulting atom will use the minimal encoding of -1, i.e. 0xff.

logxor (logxor A B ...) bitwise XOR of any number of atoms. Identity is 0.

(logxor -128 0x7fffff)   => 0x80007f

Sign extending the first argument becomes 0xffff80, XORing that with 0x7fffff becomes 0x80007f. This is a negative number (in Two's complement) and it's also the minimal representation of it.

lognot (lognot A) bitwise NOT of A. All bits are inverted.

(lognot ()) => -1(lognot 1) => -2(lognot (lognot 17)) => 17


There are two variants of bit shift operators. Arithmetic shift (ash) and Logical shift (lsh). Both can be used to shift both left and right, the direction is determined by the sign of the count argument. A positive count shifts left, a negative count shifts right. For both ash and lsh, if |count| exceeds 65535, the operation fails. The resulting value is treated as a signed integer, and any redundant leading zero-bytes or 0xff bytes are stripped.

ash (ash A count) if count is positive, return A shifted left count bits, else returns A shifted right by |count| bits, sign extended.

Arithmetic shift treats the value to be shifted (A) as a signed integer, and sign extends the left-most bits when when shifting right.

When shifting left, any new bytes added to the left side of the value are also filled with the sign-extended bit. For example:

(ash -1 8) ; -1 = . . . 11111111   => -256 ; -256 = . . 1111111100000000

A arithmetic left shift will only extend the atom length when more bits are needed

(strlen (ash -1 7))   => 1(strlen (ash -1 8))   => 2(strlen (ash 255 1))  => 2(strlen (ash 128 1))  => 2(strlen (ash 127 1))  => 2

Consecutive right shifts of negative numbers will result in a terminal value of -1.

(ash -7 -1) ; -7 = . . . 11111001   => -4(ash -4 -1) ; -4 = . . . 11111100   => -2(ash -2 -1) ; -2 = . . . 11111110   => -1(ash -1 -1) ; -1 = . . . 11111111   => -1

A right shift of -1 by any amount is still -1:

(ash -1 -99)   => -1

lsh (lsh A count) if count is positive, return A shifted left count bits, else returns A shifted right |count| bits, adding zero bits on the left.

Logical shift treats the value to be shifted as an unsigned integer, and does not sign extend on right shift.

(lsh -7 -1) ; -7 = . . . 11111001   => 124   ;    = . . . 01111100
(lsh -5 -2) ; -5 = . . . 11111011   => 62    ;    = . . . 00111110

A left shift of an atom with the high bit set will extend the atom left, and result in an allocation.

(lsh -1 1) ; -1 = . . . 11111111   => 510  ;    = . . . 0000000111111110(strlen (lsh -1 1))   => 2(strlen (lsh 255 1))  => 2(strlen (lsh 128 1))  => 2(strlen (lsh 127 1))  => 2


substr (substr S I1 I2) return an atom containing the bytes in range [I1, I2). Index 0 refers to the first byte of the string S. I2 must be greater than or equal to I1. Both I1 and I2 must be greater than or equal to 0, and less than or equal to one past the end of the string S.

The third parameter to substr is optional. If omitted, the range [I1, (strlen S)) is returned.

(substr "clvm" 0 4) => "clvm"(substr "clvm" 2 4) => 30317 ; = "vm"(substr "clvm" 4 4) => ()
(substr "clvm" 1) => "lvm"
(substr "clvm" 4 5) => FAIL(substr "clvm" 1 0) => FAIL(substr "clvm" -1 4) => FAIL

strlen (strlen S) return the number of bytes in S.

(strlen "clvm") => 4(strlen "0x0") => 3(strlen 0x0) => 1(strlen "") => ()(strlen 0) => ()(strlen ()) => ()(strlen ()) => ()

concat (concat A ...) return the concatenation of any number of atoms.


(concat "Hello" " " "world")   => "Hello world"

Streaming Operators#

sha256 (sha256 A ...) returns the sha256 hash (as a 32-byte blob) of the bytes of its parameters.

(sha256 "clvm")   => 0xcf3eafb281c0e0e49e19c18b06939a6f7f128595289b08f60c68cef7c0e00b81(sha256 "cl" "vm")   => 0xcf3eafb281c0e0e49e19c18b06939a6f7f128595289b08f60c68cef7c0e00b81

BLS12-381 operators#

point_add and pubkey_for_exp operate on G1 points of the BLS12-381 curve. These are represented as 48 bytes == 384 bits.

(strlen (pubkey_for_exp 1))   => 48

point_add (point_add a0 a1 ...) takes an arbitrary number of BLS12-381 G1 points and adds them.


(point_add (pubkey_for_exp 1) (pubkey_for_exp 2))   => 0x89ece308f9d1f0131765212deca99697b112d61f9be9a5f1f3780a51335b3ff981747a0b2ca2179b96d2c0c9024e5224

pubkey_for_exp (pubkey_for_exp A) turns the integer A into a BLS12-381 point on G1.

(pubkey_for_exp 1)   => 0x97f1d3a73197d7942695638c4fa9ac0fc3688c4f9774b905a14e3a3f171bac586c55e83ff97a1aeffb3af00adb22c6bb


The softfork operator takes at least one parameter cost. So (softfork cost arg_1 ... arg_n).

At the moment, softfork always returns 0 (aka () or nil), and takes cost amount of cost.

At first glance, it seems pretty useless since it doesn't do anything, and just wastes cost doing it.

The idea is, after a soft fork, the meaning of the arguments may change. In fact, we can hide completely new dialects of ChiaLisp inside here, that has new operators that calculate new things.

For example, suppose we want to add secp256k1 operators like +s for adding two points on this ECDSA curve for bitcoin compatibility. We can't just do this in vanilla clvm because that would make a program (+s p1 p2) return different values before and after the soft fork. So instead we hide it under softfork.

(mod (cost p1 p2 p3 p4) (softfork cost 1 (assert (= (+s p1 p2) (+s p3 p4)))))

Pre-softfork, this always passes and returns () at a cost of COST (plus a bit of overhead).

Post-softfork, this also returns () at a cost of COST... but may also fail if p1 + p2 ≠ p3 + p4! We can't export the sum outside the softfork boundary, but we can calculate the sum and compare it to another thing inside.

One more thing -- we take the cost of running the program inside the softfork boundary and ensure it exactly matches COST, and raise an exception if it's wrong. That way, the program really does have the same cost pre and post-softfork (or it fails post-softfork).

Arithmetic and Bitwise Identities#

Some operators have a special value that is returned when they are called with zero arguments. This value is the identity of that function. For example, calling the operator + with zero arguments will return 0:

(+) => 0

logandall 1's
logiorall zeros
logxorall zeros

Note that /, divmod, and lognot do not have an identity value. Calling them with zero arguments is an error.


Behaviour of nil when used as an integer#

When used in an integer context, nil behaves as zero.

Behaviour of zero when used as a value that may be checked for nil#

When used as a parameter that may be checked for nil, zero is interpreted as nil.


When a clvm program is run, a cost is attributed to it. The minimum program cost is 40. After each opcode is run, its cost is added to the total program cost. When the cost exceeds a threshold, the program is terminated, and no value is returned. Also, if the number of atoms or pairs exceeds 2^31, the program is terminated and no value is returned.

operatorbase costcost per argcost per byte
f first30--
i if33--
c cons50--
r rest30--
l listp19--
q quote20--
a apply90--
*92885see here
logand, logior, logxor1002643
not, any, all200300-